Understanding Prolactin: Its Role in Fertility

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Prolactin is a hormone that most people associate primarily with breastfeeding. While it certainly plays a crucial role in lactation, prolactin's influence extends beyond nursing, especially concerning fertility. Understanding the complex interactions of this hormone can help shed light on some challenges related to conception and reproductive health.

What is Prolactin?

Prolactin is a hormone produced in the pituitary gland, a pea-sized organ found at the base of the brain. Its primary function is to stimulate breast milk production following childbirth. But prolactin doesn't just exist in women; men have it too, albeit in lower quantities. In fact, prolactin is involved in over 300 separate biological processes, including immune regulation and the development of pancreatic islets.

Prolactin and Fertility

When it comes to fertility, prolactin plays a complex role. Normally, it helps regulate menstrual cycles and prepares the breasts for milk production during pregnancy. However, unusually high or low levels of this hormone can upset the delicate balance necessary for ovulation and fertility.

Hyperprolactinaemia, a condition characterised by excessive prolactin levels, can lead to irregular menstrual cycles and fertility issues in women. In men, high prolactin levels can result in erectile dysfunction, lower bone density, and even infertility. On the flip side, while rare, excessively low prolactin levels may cause inadequate breast milk production after childbirth.

Symptoms of Prolactin Imbalances

Unusually high prolactin levels may cause symptoms in women such as:

  • Irregular or absent periods
  • Unexplained milk production
  • Mood swings
  • Decrease in libido in women

In men, symptoms may include:

  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Decreased muscle mass
  • Reduced body and facial hair
  • Enlarged breasts.

Low prolactin levels are rarer and harder to diagnose. The primary symptom in women might be the inability to produce enough breast milk postpartum. In men, symptoms are less obvious but may include symptoms similar to low testosterone levels, like fatigue and decreased muscle mass.

Managing Prolactin Levels

The treatment of abnormal prolactin levels typically involves addressing the underlying cause. For hyperprolactinaemia, doctors often prescribe medications that can help reduce prolactin production. 

Low levels of prolactin, on the other hand, are generally treated by managing any underlying conditions contributing to the imbalance. This could involve changes in medication, lifestyle adjustments, or hormone therapy.


Prolactin plays an essential role in our reproductive health and fertility. Keeping a close eye on its levels and maintaining a balanced lifestyle can support fertility. Remember, each individual is unique, and what works best will depend on your personal health circumstances. Always seek guidance from healthcare professionals when dealing with hormonal imbalances and fertility concerns.

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